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Until recently, SIMBAD users were asked to cover, at least partly, the cost of the resources involved in the database service. This support is now done through sponsorship agreements negociated with major national and international agencies as described below.
For the Web access, the former control by IP address has now been suppressed, so that all users can access Simbad through the Web without userid/password. The remote login (tty) access to simbad still requires the usage of a userid/password. Non-Web users will have to use ssh (`secure shell') rather than telnet. Please contact the CDS staff if you are in the (rare) situation requiring a userid and password.

Institutional sponsorship to SIMBAD access

SIMBAD and the CDS are funded by the French governmental agency INSU (Institut National des Sciences de l'Univers), CNRS (Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique), CNES (the French space agency), and Université Louis Pasteur, Strasbourg.
User access to SIMBAD is sponsored by several national and international agencies from Europe, the United States, Canada, and Japan, as detailed below.

Users from ESO or ESA member states

Starting January 1995, SIMBAD access for all bona fide scientists affiliated to astronomical research institutions in ESO or ESA member states, is sponsored by ESO and ESA.
This results from an agreement signed by CDS, ESO and ST-ECF, stating that the charges related to the use of the SIMBAD database by European users are being payed as a yearly lump sum jointly by ESO and ESA.

U.S. users

SIMBAD access for U.S. users is sponsored by NASA (National Aeronautics and Space Administration). Furthermore, the database may be accessed in the United States via the Smithsonian Atrophysical Observatory, where a gateway to SIMBAD is maintained under contract with NASA. Potential users should contact the U.S. Simbad gateway at: simbad@cfa.harvard.edu .

Canada

SIMBAD access for Canadian users is sponsored through an agreement with the Canadian Astronomy Data Center. Users should contact Dr. Daniel Durand at CADC (daniel.durand@nrc.ca).

Japan users

SIMBAD access for Japan users is sponsored through an agreement with ADAC, NAOJ. Details are given in ADAC's SIMBAD service page, in Japanese.

Other countries

The SIMBAD service is no more invoiced to the users.
Potential users can use without restriction the Web service.

Please contact the CDS staff if you have any question or suggestion related to this matter:

              question@simbad.u-strasbg.fr    
              Centre de Données astronomiques de Strasbourg
	      11, rue de l'Université
	      67000  STRASBOURG,  France
         Tel: +33-88 15 07 20
         Fax: +33-88 15 07 60                


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