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Multidimensional arrays in C (and thus Python) are stored in row-major order; in
Fortran they are in column-major order. For a 2-dimensional array (matrix), this
means that C stores each row contiguously in memory, while Fortran stores each
column contiguously. More generally, for an N-dimensional array, in C the last
dimension is contiguous in memory, while in Fortran the first dimension is
contiguous. This means that for the same area allocated in memory, Fortran and C
indices are transposed:
where is the number of dimensions and the dimension.
Remember also that first element through one dimension has index 1 in Fortran, and
index 0 in C. Finally, we can write:
This element is the same but accessed from Fortran or from C respectively.